The success of the projects to determine the complete genomes has created a strong momentum in the quest for obtaining other 'complete' molecular datasets in biology.
|Description||Measurement||Manipulation||Time dependence (first approx.)|
|Genome||The complete DNA sequence of the genetic material in the organism.||
High accuracy and completeness.
|Genetic manipulation; site-directed mutagenesis, genetic screens.||None.|
|Transcriptome||The complete set and levels of mRNA transcripts in a cell or tissue of the organism.||
cDNA microarrays, SAGE, Northern blots. Quantification inaccurate. Approximate completeness.
|Indirectly via genetic manipulation.||Reflects the state of gene expression.|
|Proteome||The complete set and levels of proteins in a cell or tissue, including modifications, complexes.||
2D-gels with mass spectrometry. GFP fusions. Y2H. Quantification very difficult. Completeness difficult.
|Indirectly through genetic manipulations. Small molecules as inhibitors of enzymes.||Responsive to all manner of influences throughout the life cycle.|
|Metabolome||All metabolites and their concentrations. Defined as organic small molecules, not protein, RNA or DNA.||
NMR, MS, specific methods. Quantification and resolution difficult. Completeness may be reachable.
|Difficult.||Responsive to all manner of influences throughout the life cycle.|